Friday, May 22, 2020

Zachary Taylor - US President Facts

Zachary Taylor (1784 - 1850) served as Americas twelfth president. However, he died after only a little more than a year. This page provides a quick list of fast facts for Zachary Taylor. For more in depth information, you can also read the Zachary Taylor Biography  or the Top 10 Things to Know About Zachary Taylor.   Birth: November 24, 1784 Death: July 9, 1850 Term of Office: March 4, 1849-July 9, 1850 Number of Terms Elected: 1 Term; Zachary Taylor died after serving a   little more than a year in office. Doctors believe his death was caused by cholera morbus contracted from eating a bowl of cherries and drinking a pitcher of iced milk on a hot day. Interestingly, his body was exhumed on June 17, 1991. There was a belief by historians that he might have been poisoned due to his stance against allowing slavery to extend to the western states. However, the researchers were able to show that he had not, in fact, been poisoned. He was later reburied in his Louisville, Kentucky mausoleum.   First Lady: Margaret Peggy Mackall Smith Nickname: Old Rough and Ready Zachary Taylor Quote: It would be judicious to act with magnanimity towards a prostrate foe.Additional Zachary Taylor Quotes Major Events While in Office: Zachary Taylor was renowned in the United States before becoming president as a war hero. He had fought in the War of 1812, the Black Hawk War, the Second Seminole War, and the Mexican-American War. In 1848, he was nominated by the Whig Party as their presidential candidate even though he was not present at the convention and had not put his name forward to run. Ironically, he was informed by letter of the nomination. However, he would not pay the postage due and did not actually find out he was the nominee until weeks later.   During his short time as president, the key event occurred was the passage of the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty between the United States and Great Britain.The treaty dealt with the status of colonization and canals in the countries of Central America. Both countries agreed that from that date on, all canals would indeed be neutral. In addition, both countries stated that they would not colonize any part of Central America.   Related Zachary Taylor Resources: These additional resources on Zachary Taylor can provide you with further information about the president and his times. Zachary Taylor BiographyThis article takes a more in depth look at the twelfth president of the United States including his time as a war hero. You will also learn about his childhood, family, early career, and the major events of his administration. Chart of Presidents and Vice PresidentsThis informative chart gives quick reference information on the presidents, vice-presidents, their terms of office, and their political parties. Other Presidential Fast Facts: James K PolkMillard FillmoreList of American Presidents

Friday, May 8, 2020

Scientific Management - 2111 Words

THE EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT For thousands of years, managers faced the same issues and problems confronting executives today. Around 1100 B.C., the Chinese practiced the four management functions—planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Between 400 B.C. and 350 B.C., the Greeks recognized management as a separate art and advocated a scientific approach to work. The Romans decentralized the management of their vast empire before the birth of Christ. During the Medieval Period, the Venetians standardized production through building warehouses and using an inventory system to monitor the contents. But throughout history, most managers operated strictly on a trial-and-error basis. Communication and transportation constraints hindered†¦show more content†¦3. ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT APPROACH This approach focused on how a business should be organized and the practices an effective manager should follow. It emphasized the perspective of senior managers within the organization, and argued that management was a profession and could be taught. While pioneers of scientific management tried to determine the best way to perform a job, those in the administrative management explored the possibilities of an ideal way (rule of thumb) to put all jobs together and operate an organization. Thus the main focus of administrative school or general management theory is on finding the best way to run organizations. Administrative management school is also called traditional principles of management. Henry Fayol, a French industrialist, is the chief architect and the father of the administrative management theory. He believed that techniques of effective management could be defined and taught and that managerial organization hold as much importance as management as workers organization. He was the first to identify functions of management. According to Fayol, the five functions of managers were: †¢ Plan †¢ Organize †¢ Command †¢ Coordinate †¢ Control Fayol identified 14 principles of management which he wanted to be applied flexibly. Here are Fayol’s 14Show MoreRelatedThe Theory Of Scientific Management1633 Words   |  7 PagesThe purpose of this essay is to research, analyse and assess the theory of scientific management, which was revolutionised by Frederick Winslow Taylor in 1887 (A.Huczynski, 2010) and to critically evaluate the benefits and pitfalls of his theory. This theory Taylor developed is known as Taylorism and has been used commonly in various structures of organisation. Comparisons shall be drawn to other theories and advancements of this theory, such as Fordism and Toyotism, which was extremely popular inRead MoreThe Principles Of Scientific Management3291 Words   |  14 PagesTHE PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT (TAYLORISM) STUDENT NAME : SOWMITH VATSAVAI ROLL NO : 120908246 BRANCH : INDUSTRIAL AND PRODUCTION ENGG. E-MAIL ID : SOWMITH.V@GMAIL.COM CONTACT NO : 09740459479 INDEX Contents Page No. 1 Fundamentals 2 2 Introduction 5 3 Experimentation 6 4 Principles 9 5 Conclusion 15 6 References 16 â€Æ' 1.Fundamentals of Scientific Management 1.1 Introduction Read MoreScientific Management2246 Words   |  9 PagesSCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT AND CONTRIBUTION TO ECONOMY Scientific management is a theory of management that analysis and synthesizes workflows, with the objective of improving labour productivity. The core ideas of the theory were developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 1880s and 1890s, and were first published in his monographs, Shop Management (1905) and The Principles of Scientific Management (1911). He began trying to discover a way for workers to increase their efficiency when he was the forepersonRead MoreScientific Management2016 Words   |  9 PagesScientific management (also called Taylorism, the Taylor system, or the Classical Perspective) is a theory of management that analyzes and synthesizes workflow processes, improving labor productivity. The core ideas of the theory were developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 1880s and 1890s, and were first published in his monographs, Shop Management (1905) and The Principles of Scientific Management (1911).[1] Taylor believed that decisions based upon tradition and rules of thumb should be replacedRead MoreThe Principles Of Scientific Management1337 Words   |  6 Pagescentury ago, Frederick Winslow Taylor’s renowned work The Principles of Scientific Management set forth a theory that to this day is subjected to a similar degree of critique and debate to that in the early 20th century. While Taylor’s ideas were evidently influenced by the works of earlier researchers, it is he who is credited as the â€Å"father† of the scientific management movement (Jeacle, 2004, p. 1164). As such, scientific management itself is synonymous with Taylor to the extent that it is commonlyRead MoreThe Advantages Of Scientific Management Essay1594 Words   |  7 PagesIn the early 20th Century, Frederick Winslow Taylor revolutionised work in factories through the development of his new form of management; Scientific management. It is a method of worker management that involves scientifically finding the best way to divide labour and to do each ind ividual job as easily as possible, and finding the best person for that job. It is done through removing the control of production from the workers and putting it in the hands of the managers, who oversee the processRead MorePrinciples of Scientific Management1149 Words   |  5 PagesScientific Management is a theory of management that analyzed and synthesized workflows. Its main objective was improving economic efficiency, especially labor productivity. It was one of the earliest attempts to apply science to the engineering of processes and to management. Its development began with Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 1880s and 1890s within the manufacturing industries. Taylor was an American mechanical engineer and a management consultant in his later years. He is often calledRead MoreThe Scientific Management of Taylor1493 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction Taylor used valuable knowledge into work practice, as the appearance of scientific management, the productivity of all the developed countries increased nearly 50 times (Zuo, 2007). In the meanwhile, whether the scientific management is suitable for modern age has sparked much debate. Some people assert that scientific have some limitations. Therefore, this essay tends to analyze several parts of scientific management, some problems caused by it and whether it is suitable to the modern enterprisesRead MoreThe Principles Of Scientific Management2994 Words   |  12 PagesIntroduction Good management can be defined as the optimal use of available resources to increase an organisation s efficiency and effectiveness in meeting its objectives (Garg, 2013). Scientific management has been the dominant model for many years, but its usefulness for meeting modern organisational challenges may be limited. This paper examines the principles of scientific management, the degree to which it is applied in contemporary organisations, its utility for addressing modern challengesRead MoreThe Emergence Of Scientific Management1300 Words   |  6 PagesThe emergence of scientific management Frederick W. Taylor is called the father of scientific management who is world famous through his book named â€Å"The Principles of Scientific Management†. â€Å"The Principles of Scientific Management† was first published in the early 20th century. Through his work, Frederick W. Taylor described that the process of scientific management can increase total worker organizational efficiency. The theory of scientific management was not invented by one day. It took many

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Law Enforcement and the Aging Process Free Essays

The mandatory separation clause, or forced retirement at a certain age for police officers was officially upheld in 1996, as the lobbying efforts of the Fraternal Order of Police were successful in pleading their case.   The group argued that mandatory separation should be enforced because of the physical requirements of the position. They believe that an officer’s ability to physically meet the demands placed his or her body at a certain age naturally diminish, which places the officer in imminent danger. We will write a custom essay sample on Law Enforcement and the Aging Process or any similar topic only for you Order Now    Jim Pasco, the FOP director, stated that â€Å"It’s not only harder to defend yourself, but think of the very strenuous nature of, for example, the foot chase.†Ã‚   (Kennedy, 2007) The director did admit, however that not all police departments choose to enforce mandatory separation based upon officers reaching a certain age, as many departments   believe it’s â€Å"harder to recruit new officers and expensive to train them.†Ã‚   (Kennedy, 2007) Pasco’s comments were in response to the November 2007 fatal shooting and death of Broward, Florida’s Deputy Paul Rein, age 76.  Ã‚   Many believe that the deputy’s death could have been prevented had the department enforced the mandatory separation policy state and local law enforcement agencies are allowed when an officer reaches a certain age.   While transporting a convicted armed robber to stand trial in another location the inmate gained control of the deputy’s fire arm and fatally shot the officer. Deputy Rein’s daily duty was to transport inmates between secure locations and according to the department this was a duty older officers could handle.   Rein was considered safe, as he transported the prisoners while riding in a secure vehicle that contained a locked cage.   Fellow officers however reported that they viewed Rein let the accused inmate out of a medical vehicle prior to his death, which put the officer in danger and violated department policy.   (Kennedy, 2007) Though most workers are protected by strict federal laws prohibiting discrimination based on age, there are some exceptions to the rule.   The Age Discrimination Act of 1967 (ADEA) is the federal government’s protection to employees over the age of 40 that work for a â€Å"regulated employer.†Ã‚   (Pellicciotti, 1991) The ADEA’s laws are not limited to those who hold a current position; these laws also provide protection during the hiring process, salary increases, promotions and more.   State and local government employees are excluded from much of the ADEA’s protection, as the government is not considered a regulated employer. Those workers are protected by the EEOC, which enforces the same discrimination laws.   Extreme limitations are placed on the civil servant – the state and local law enforcement officers and fire fighters, due to the demands of the position and taking into consideration the fact that age may limit an officer’s ability to perform.   (Pellicciotti, 1991) Law enforcement officers have limited protection under the ADEA, as the Act allows the government employer to â€Å"fail to hire or discharge the †¦law enforcement officers because of age† if specific stipulations are met.   (Pellicciotti, 1991) The ADEA allows the government employer to discriminate against law enforcement officers because of age if the action is taken â€Å"(1) with respect to the employment of an individual as a firefighter or as a law enforcement offers and the individual has attained the age of hiring or retirement† and â€Å"(2) pursuant to a bona fide hiring or retirement plan.†Ã‚   (Pellicciotti, 1991) The ADEA will protect officers if the retirement option presented to the civil servant is not legitimate. The ADEA’s definition of â€Å"employer† also excludes the federal government and, like the state and local government workers, these workers are covered under the EEOC.   The federal government established a mandatory separation clause specific to federal law enforcement officers, fire fighters and air traffic controllers.   Under 4 U.S.C Sec. 8335 (a), (b), (c) federal workers holding these three positions are required to comply with the mandatory separation policy established by the federal government and this clause is heavily enforced.   (Pellicciotti, 1991) Experts on both sides of the argument agree that the bottom line is employing the best possible law enforcement officers and fire fighters.   Many believe that the age limitation is non-existent, as Broward Sherriff’s Department spokesman Elliot Cohen stated â€Å"there are different roles that can be filled by individuals of all ages.†Ã‚   (Kennedy, 2007)   Still, the ADEA allows state and local law enforcement officers to be the exception to the rule; however in the case of officer Rein many have once again posed the question â€Å"is age the best proxy for reaching that goal?†Ã‚   (Kennedy, 2007) References Kennedy, K. (2007). Death of Deputy, 76, Raises Age Question. Gefunden am November 9, 2007 unter Pellicciotti, J. M. (1991). Exemptions and employer defenses under the ADEA. Public Personnel Management , 20 How to cite Law Enforcement and the Aging Process, Essays

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Qualitative and Quantitative Research Designs Differences

Introduction Research design is the process through which the research questions are turned into a testing project. The suitability or the effectiveness of a research design depends on the research questions. As a blue print for the study, a research design is concerned with the following issues.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Qualitative and Quantitative Research Designs’ Differences specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More First, it identifies the questions to be studied by the researcher. Second, it helps the researcher to identify the relevant data that needs to be collected. Finally, it is concerned with how data should be analyzed in order to achieve the desired results. Research design can be qualitative or quantitative. A quantitative study involves systematic and empirical investigation of social phenomena with the aid of statistical techniques. Qualitative study on the other hand is â€Å"a me thod of inquiry that facilitates an in-depth understanding of human behavior, and the factors that influence such behavior†. This paper focuses on the differences between qualitative and quantitative research designs. Characteristics of a Qualitative Study Design Strategies A qualitative study uses naturalistic inquiry. This means that real-world situations are studied as they occur without manipulating or controlling them. A qualitative study is based on emergent design flexibility. Thus, it allows the research to adapt to changes in situations, and enables the researcher to adopt new techniques as they emerge. The study also uses purposeful sampling to recruit participants. Selection of the sources of information or the participants is based on the ability of such participants to provide useful information on the subject under study. Data Collection In qualitative studies, qualitative data is collected through observations that give details about the research topic. Other me thods of collecting data include interviews, case studies and document review. Personal experiences and insights of the researcher are an integral aspect of the inquiry. They help in understanding the phenomenon under study. Empathic neutrality, as well as, mindfulness must be maintained during data collection to avoid bias. Change in the phenomenon under study is assumed to be on-going. Thus, attention must be given to system and situation dynamics during data collection.Advertising Looking for research paper on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Analysis Strategies The analysis process is based on unique case orientation. Thus, the first step in analysis is â€Å"being true to, respecting, and capturing details†, of each case being studied. The study uses inductive analysis, as well as, creative synthesis to analyze data. The analysis starts by exploration, and then confirmation is made based on analytical pri nciples instead of rules. A creative synthesis ends the analysis process. A holistic perspective must be developed by understanding the phenomenon as a complex system that is greater than its constituent parts. The analyst focuses on the complex interdependencies, as well as, system dynamics that can not be conceptualized as separate, and linear cause-effect relationships. The analyst aims at being in control of, and reflective about his voice and perspective. A reliable voice expresses authenticity and trustworthiness. This enables the researcher to understand and depict the world authentically â€Å"in all its complexity while being self-analytic and reflexive in consciousness†. Characteristics of Quantitative Study Design Strategies A quantitative study aims at classifying facts, counting facts, and developing statistical or mathematical models in order to explain the phenomenon under study. The researcher normally has a clear understanding of what he is interested in prio r to the study. Consequently, the various aspects of the study are properly designed prior to data collection. However, designing all aspects of the study in advance limits the researcher’s ability to adopt emergent techniques during the study. Besides, it makes it difficult to adapt the study to systems or situation dynamics. Measurement is an integral aspect of quantitative study. Data Collection Quantitative studies use quantitative data in order to facilitate mathematical analysis. Quantitative data are usually in numerical or statistical form. Thus, the first step in data collection is to ensure that the variables considered in the study are measurable. A measurement instrument has to be developed to help the researcher to collect quantitative data. In experimental quantitative studies, the researcher has to control, and manipulate the variables in order to obtain the desired information. The methods used to collect data include surveys and interviews. In most quantitati ve studies, only part of the population (sample) is selected to provide information. However, the sample must be representative of the population in order to improve the credibility of any generalizations made on the population. Consequently, random sampling is used to ensure representativeness. Analysis Strategies In quantitative studies, analysis involves modeling the data by mathematically expressing the relationships between variables. The collected data is then analyzed using statistical techniques in order to provide insights on the phenomenon under study. The results of the statistical analysis are used to test the research’s hypothesis. Quantitative studies can be purely analytical or predictive. However, both cases focus on determining cause and effect relationships.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Qualitative and Quantitative Research Designs’ Differences specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Lear n More In analytical studies, the analyst concentrates in analyzing how various factors (variables) contribute to the situation. In predictive studies, the analyst establishes how the variables influence the phenomenon under study in different situations or circumstances. In this case, the analyst aims at using the results for generalization. The researcher tends to be objective throughout the analysis process in order to avoid bias. Discussion and Comparison of the Differences Both qualitative and quantitative research designs aim at establishing cause and effect relationships. However, the approaches adopted by the two designs are fundamentally different. The two research designs can, thus, be compared as follows. First, the primary aim of a qualitative study is to provide a detailed and sufficient description of the study topic. Quantitative studies on the other hand concentrates on counting and classifying variables, and use statistical models to explain observations. Second, qualitative studies are suitable for initial stages of a research project while quantitative studies are suitable for the later stages. In this regard, quantitative research gives a clearer picture of the entire study compared to qualitative research. Third, the researcher acts as the main instrument for collecting data in qualitative research. The researcher uses methods such as individual in-depth interviews, documentary analysis and focus group discussions. In quantitative studies, tools such as surveys are the main instruments of data collection. Fourth, the data used in qualitative studies are presented in the form of words, images and artifacts. On the other hand, the data used in quantitative studies are presented in terms of statistics and numbers. Finally, qualitative studies tend to be subjective in approach since they aim at understanding â€Å"human behavior and reasons that govern such behavior†. Quantitative research on the other hand is objective in approach si nce it only focuses on precise measurements, and analysis. References Agrawal, N. (2009). Quantitative Research Methods. New Delhi: Prateeksha Publications. McBurney, D., White, T. (2009). Research Methods. New York: Cengage Brain.Advertising Looking for research paper on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Weinbers, N. (2009). Qualitative Reserach Methods. New York: John Wiley and Sons. This research paper on Qualitative and Quantitative Research Designs’ Differences was written and submitted by user Devin P. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

How to Disinfect Rainwater for Drinking

How to Disinfect Rainwater for Drinking You can usually drink rain straight from the sky, but if youre collecting and storing it, youll want to disinfect rainwater for drinking and cleaning. Fortunately, there are simple disinfection methods to use, whether you have power or not. This is handy information to know in case youre stuck after a storm without water or youre out camping. The same techniques can be used to prepare snow for drinking, too. Quick Methods to Disinfect Water Boiling - Reduce pathogens by boiling water for 1 minute at a rolling boil or 3 minutes if youre at an altitude greater than 2,000 meters (6,562 feet). The longer boiling time at high altitude is because water boils at a lower temperature. The recommended duration comes from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). If you store freshly boiled water in sterile containers (which can be boiled) and seal them, the water will remain safe indefinitely. Bleach - For disinfection, add 2.3 fluid ounces of household bleach (sodium hypochlorite in water)  per 1,000 gallons of water (in other words, for a small volume of water, a splash of bleach is  more than sufficient). Allow 30 minutes for the chemicals to react.  It may seem obvious, but use unscented bleach since the scented sort includes perfumes and other undesirable chemicals.  Bleach dosage is not a hard-and-fast rule because its effectiveness depends on the temperature of the water and pH. Also, be aware that bleach may react with chemicals in the water to produce toxic gases (mostly a concern with turbid or cloudy water). Its not ideal to add bleach to water and immediately seal it in containers - its better to wait for any fumes to dissipate. Although drinking straight bleach is dangerous, the small concentration used to disinfect water isnt likely to cause problems.  Bleach dissipates within 24 hours.   Why Would You Disinfect Rainwater? The point of disinfection is to remove disease-causing microbes, which include bacteria, algae, and fungi. Rain generally doesnt contain any more microbes than any other drinking water (its often cleaner than groundwater or surface water), so its usually fine to drink or use for other purposes. If the water falls into a clean cistern or bucket, its still fine. In fact, most people who collect rainwater use it without applying any treatment. Microbial contamination of rain is less of a threat than toxins that might be in the water from surfaces it touched. However, those toxins require filtration or special treatment. What were talking about here is pure rain. Technically, you dont have to disinfect it, but most public agencies recommend taking the extra precaution to prevent illness. Ways to Disinfect Water There are four broad categories of disinfection methods: heat, filtration, irradiation, and chemical methods. Boiling water is an excellent method, but obviously, it only helps if you have a heat source. Boiling water can kill some pathogens, but it does not remove heavy metals, nitrate, pesticides, or other chemical contamination.Chlorine, iodine, and ozone are most often used for chemical disinfection. Chlorination can leave potentially toxic by-products, plus it doesnt kill all cysts or viruses. Iodination is effective, but leaves an unpleasant taste. Use of iodine is not recommended when preparing water for pregnant women or people with thyroid problems.  Adding ozone is effective, but not widely available.Irradiation is accomplished using an ultraviolet light or exposure to strong sunlight. UV light kills bacteria and viruses, but doesnt kill all the algae or cysts of pathogenic organisms. Sunlight is effective if the water is sufficiently clear, the light is bright enough, and the water is exposed to light long enough. There are too many variables to give firm recommendations on use of this method. Microfiltration effectiveness depends on the pore size of the filter. The smaller the pore size, the better the filtration, but its also slower. This technique removes all pathogens. Other techniques are becoming more widespread, including electrolysis, nano-alumina filtration, and LED irradiation.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

History of Spain - Overview

History of Spain - Overview Location of Spain Historical Summary of Spain Spain was invaded by Napoleon and saw struggles between an allied force and France, which the allies won, but this triggered independence movements among Spain’s imperial possessions. During the nineteenth century the political scene in Spain came to be dominated by the military, and in the twentieth century two dictatorships occurred: Rivera’s in 1923 – 30 and Franco’s in 1939 – 75. Franco kept Spain out of World War 2 and survived in power; he planned a transition back to monarchy for when he died, and this occurred in 1975 – 78 with the re-emergence of a democratic Spain. Key Events in Spanish History Key People from the History of Spain Ferdinand and Isabella 1452 – 1516 / 1451 - 1504Known as the Catholic Monarchs because of their faith, Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile married in 1469; both came to power in 1479, Isabella after a civil war. They united the kingdoms of Aragon, Castile and several other regions under one monarchy and sponsored the journeys of European explorers, helping to establish a wealthy Spanish empire.Franco 1892 - 1975Franco came to power after emerging as leader of the victorious right wing Republicans in the Spanish Civil War. He cannily avoided entering World War 2 on the side of Hitler, who many regarded as a natural ally, and instead survived in power until 1975. He harshly suppressed many supposed enemies. Rulers of Spain

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Constructivism Theory of International Relations Essay

Constructivism Theory of International Relations - Essay Example Based on these articles, I would like to point out that these scholars conducted a well organized and extensive research. They had to choose to carry out a research on this theory in order to create more awareness and inform their respective audiences on all the contributions, controversies and the gaps in this theory which need more researchers to study. In the choice of their methodology, I would like to recommend that it was properly done. It seems that they knew about the main objective of their research. Thus, they identified and used the most appropriate variables which would help them in answering their research questions and the hypotheses. Both of these scholars knew about the predictions that would determine their findings. This explains why there was no failure in the whole of their research. After identifying the research topic/issue, they settled on literature review in which they conducted several documentary analyses in order to get more information about this theory. They did this by choosing the most appropriate and relevant set of documents to use. Thus, their work became more credible and authoritative to be relied upon by other scholars for carrying out their future researches (Rodney, B.H., 2009). This area or f research is quite important for these scholars. Although several scholars have researched on it, because, as Richard and Christian suggest, a lot still need to be done in order to fill up the missing links. Based on their findings that this theory is valuable for the contemporary society.